Biochar has a porous structure with an average surface area of 500 m² per gram. It has an excellent moisture-holding capacity, it can hold 6 times its own weight in water. It increases the water permeability and water holding capacity of the soil and helps its aeration.
The porous structure, high surface area, and ability to absorb organic-inorganic nutrients prepare a suitable environment for the colonization, growth, and reproduction of beneficial soil microorganisms such as actinomycetes, bacterias, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
The functional groups on the biochar surface increase the cationic activities in the soil, thus the soil holds nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium.